E. E. Cummings, who was born in 1894 and died in 1962, wrote many poems with unconventional punctuation and capitalization, and unusual line, word, and even letter placements. Cummings' most difficult form of prose is probably the ideogram; it is extremely short and it combines both visual and aural elements. There may be sounds or characters on the page that cannot be said or cannot carry the same message if pronounced and not read. Four of Cummings'
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showed last 75 words of 2987 total
Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1965.
Friedman, Norman. E. E. Cummings: A Collection of Critical Essays. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1972. Kidder, Rushworth M. E. E. Cummings: An Introduction to the Poetry. New York: Columbia University Press, 1979. Marks, Barry A. E. E. Cummings. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1964. Triem, Eve. E. E. Cummings. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1969. Wegner, Robert E. The Poetry and Prose of E. E. Cummings. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1965.