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In 1924 a French poet and critic Andre Breton published "The Surrealist Manifesto," which lead as a starter to the surrealist movement. Nicolas Pioch, a famous art historian, maintains that "the surrealist movement represented a reaction against what its members saw as the destruction wrought by the ‘rationalism’ that had guided European culture and politics in the past and that had culminated in the horrors of World War I. Surrealism was a means of reuniting conscious …

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…shoes that appear to walk on thin air, scarves and other objects that seem to defy the law of gravity. You will realize that such irrational settings, unreasonable it might appear to be, reflects the Surrealist tradition of aesthetic construction, composition, and visual effect (Cusimano, Surrealism 6). Whether or not surrealism has ceased as a movement, its influences can be detected in all the major art movements that have come into being since the World Wars.