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1. According to the author, what has been a central question in criminology since 1928? A central question in criminology since 1928 according to the author, has been “the extent to which the defendant’s race affects processing decisions in criminal cases.” This means whether or not the penalties for specific crimes are more severe depending on the offender’s race. 2. Who were the study participants (that is, subjects)? In the study, the participants were 881 suspects charged with “…

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…social theory and hypotheses are linked because this study carefully examines the relationship between processing decisions and race. The study links both of these concepts together. The sex offenses were clearly defined for this study, making it clear-cut and very specific. The social theory suggested that race would play a big role in the processing decisions of sex offenders, and the hypotheses specified this link to black offenders receiving more severe penalties than white offenders.