"Barbarians...thrusting their swords through everything, taking pity on nothing. The destruction is universal... Like a whirlwind or a typhoon or a torrent or I know now what to say"; "... inhumanity"; "...barbarous tribe"; "...harshness of its manners and the savagery of its character"; "...not respecting female weakness, not pitying tender infants".
Above are a few of the terms used by the Constantinople patriarch Photius to describe Vikings and their actions; but similarly horrific descriptions of
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such as sagas; it becomes clear how all too many foreign sources only give us a narrow, one sided view of a highly complex society, that of the Vikings.
Hallberg, Peter The Icelandic Saga, (Nebraska, 1962)
Logan, F. Donald The Vikings in History, (London, 1991)
Magnusson, Magnus & Pálsson, Hermann The Vinland Sagas, (Middlesex, 1965)
Roesdahl, Else The Vikings, (England, 1992)
Sawyer, Birgit and Peter Medieval Scandinavia, (USA, 1995)
Wilson, David M. The Vikings and their Origins,
(Great Britain, 1980)