The First Battle of Bull Run was the first major battle of the Civil War, was fought in Virginia, near Manassas, on July 21, 1861. The main general of the Federal army was Brigadier General Irwin McDowell, whose forces consisted of 30,000 men split into five divisions. General Joseph E. Johnston led the Confederate army, with about 22,000 men, though his army was not yet organized. Bull Run was fought to defend Richmond, which the Union thought they could
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did McDowell show any tendency of the sort, rather the contrary.
The subsequent action of the Confederate authorities contains an official verdict on the generals. J. E . Johnston was left in charge of the main Confederate army at Manassas. Jackson was promoted to an independent command in the Shenandoah; while Beauregard was sent out West and placed under A. S. Johnston, with whom in the following year he fought the battle of Shiloh against Grant.