What distinguished the final War of Independence (1895-1898) from the earlier Ten Years' War (1868-1878) and the short-lived Guerra Chiquita (1879-1880) was the war's success throughout the majority of the island, the final ousting of the Spanish through the American intervention, the espousal of an egalitarian ideology by a radical multiracial military leadership, and the iconization of the war's two most revered heroes: José Martí and Antonio Maceo. As has been documented, the aims of
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Black and Blue on San Juan Hill," in Cultures of United States Imperialism, ed. Amy Kaplan and Donald E. Pease, 219-236. Durham: Duke University Press.
Pérez Jr., Louis A. 1983. Cuba Between Empires, 1878-1902. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Scott, Rebecca J. 1985. "Class Relations in Sugar and Political Mobilization in Cuba, 1868-1899." Cuban Studies 15(1): 15-28.
1994. "Defining the Boundaries of Freedom in the World of Cane: Cuba, Brazil, and Louisiana after Emancipation." American Historical Review 99(1): 70-102.