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Herodotus, in his book The History, tells us a good deal about how, in the course of the 5th Century, the Greeks came to define themselves by casting "barbarians" as a negative foil for those traits which they admired in themselves. By “barbarians”, Herodotus means the “Others”, those who were not Greek or European. The Persian Wars marked something of a watershed in this regard. Prior to the 480s the Greek view of their eastern …

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…at the discussion of strategies before battle. But these instances are few. Therefore, Herodotus theory is that any non-Greek will act in a manner that is in contrast of that of a Greek behavior in the same situation. The Greek pattern is considered superior. For these reasons the West-Greece-is thought of as championing the cause of political and individual freedom while the East-Asia Minor is that of being under the slavish rule of Dynastic Kings.