History of Islam

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Question: Assess the main achievements of the first four caliphs (632 to 661 AD). How powerful and united was the Arab Empire at the death of Ali? {1996} Abu Bakr,, was the father-in-law of Mohammed and was the first converts to Islam. After the demise of Mohammed, Abu Bakar's main objective was to maintain the heritage of the prophet. However, distance tribes refused to recognize Abu Bakr's authority as their treaty relation was with the late Mohammed only. …

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…because he being a kin to Othman, wanted to take revenge for Othman's death. Muawiya was a powerful force as he had the backing of the dynamic Ummayad clan and also Amr, the General who conquered Egypt. After another major battle in Central Iraq in 658, Muawiya was able to rule Syria as a virtually independent state within Islam. In 661, Ali was assassinated in Kufa and this resulted in the Islamic world to become hopelessly split.