Ernest Hemingway was one of a group of artists in the inter-war period of the early twentieth century who was left mentally (and for Hemingway also physically) scarred by the total devastation he witnessed during and after the Great War. Gertrude Stein labeled Hemingway and his peers "a Lost Generation", a famous phrase that only partially describes the detachment, confusion, instability, and distrust that these twenty- and thirty-somethings felt toward many of the traditional ways
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Happy Life of Francis Macomber". in The Short Stories. Scribner/Simon & Schuster, New York. 1995.
Rovit, Earl. "Of Tutors and Tyros." in Ernest Hemingway. Twayne Publishers, Inc. New York.
Bruccoli, Matthew J. Conversations with Ernest Hemingway. University Press of Mississippi. Jackson and London. 1986.
Hoffman, Steven K. "'Nada' and the Clean, Well-Lighted Place: The Unity of Hemingway's Short Fiction." in Essays in Literature 6, no. 1. Spring, 1979.
Waldhorn, Arthur. "Style". in A Reader's Guide to Ernest Hemingway.