The practice of female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision, occurs throughout the world, but it is most common in Africa. Female genital mutilation is a tradition and social custom to keep a young girl pure and a married woman faithful. In Africa it is practiced in the majority of the continent including Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Upper Volta, Ivory Coast, Egypt, Mozambique and Sudan. It is a cross-cultural and cross-religious ritual, which is performed
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this belief, the benefits gained from this operation for the girl and her family far outweigh any potential danger.
Female Genital Mutilation. See: http://www.religioustolerance.org/fem_cirm.htm
Female Genital Mutilation Research Homepage. See: http://www.hollyfield.org/fgm/
Kouba, Leonard and Judith Muasher
1985 Female Circumcision in Africa: an Overview. African Studies Review 28:95-110.
Van Der Kwaak, Anke
1992 Female Circumcision and Gender Identity: A Questionable Alliance? Social Science and Medicine 35(6):777-787.