1.Digestion, Nutrition & Bonds
Foodstuffs mainly consist of biopolymers (complex carbohydrates, proteins and lipids); large molecules made of monomers (sugars, amino acids and fatty acids/glycerol) linked together by chemical bonds. Bonds are of vital importance in living systems, as they are broken in digestion, to provide energy - they are exergonic reactions - and constructed in repair and growth - endergonic reactions - where the energy previously generated is harnessed.
Carbohydrates®Monosaccharides ®4 kcals g-1
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body protein for amino-acid use as fuel.
Table 9: GASTROINTESTINAL PEPTIDES REGULATING FOOD INTAKE
PeptideStimulusSite of ProductionSite of ActionEffect on food intake
Cholecystokinin (CCK)Protein and fat Small intestinebrainVagal afferents Decrease
Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1)Nutrients gut hormonesgut neural signalsIleum/colon Gastric emptyingbrainDecrease
Ghrelin Fasting Stomach Brain Increase
Apolipoprotein A-IV (Apo A-IV)Fat absorption Intestine/liver Brain Decrease
Enterostatin Fat Stomach/intestine Vagal afferents Decrease
Gastrin-Releasing Peptide (GRP)Gastric mucosa Food ingestion Vagal afferents brainDecrease
Source: Considine (20022).