Explain how nutrients are obtained from our diet, and the contribution of each nutrient to the aerobic respiratory pathway

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1.Digestion, Nutrition & Bonds Foodstuffs mainly consist of biopolymers (complex carbohydrates, proteins and lipids); large molecules made of monomers (sugars, amino acids and fatty acids/glycerol) linked together by chemical bonds. Bonds are of vital importance in living systems, as they are broken in digestion, to provide energy - they are exergonic reactions - and constructed in repair and growth - endergonic reactions - where the energy previously generated is harnessed. Carbohydrates®Monosaccharides ®4 kcals g-1 …

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…body protein for amino-acid use as fuel. Table 9: GASTROINTESTINAL PEPTIDES REGULATING FOOD INTAKE PeptideStimulusSite of ProductionSite of ActionEffect on food intake Cholecystokinin (CCK)Protein and fat Small intestinebrainVagal afferents Decrease Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1)Nutrients gut hormonesgut neural signalsIleum/colon Gastric emptyingbrainDecrease Ghrelin Fasting Stomach Brain Increase Apolipoprotein A-IV (Apo A-IV)Fat absorption Intestine/liver Brain Decrease Enterostatin Fat Stomach/intestine Vagal afferents Decrease Gastrin-Releasing Peptide (GRP)Gastric mucosa Food ingestion Vagal afferents brainDecrease Source: Considine (20022).